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 Introduction

 

MAZANDARAN is a Caspian province in the north of Iran, located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by the provinces of Golestan to the east, Semnan to the south east, Tehran to the south, Qazvin south west and Gilan by the west.
Mazandaran is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources, especially large reservoirs of oil and natural gas.
The province covers an area of 23756 Km, equal to 1.46 percent of the country and has a population of 3,000,000 equal to 4 percent of the population of the country. The province also consists of 52 cities, 3600 villages and 45 sections.
There are 18 counties in the province including Sari, Behshahr, Babol, Amol, Qaemshahr, Ramsar, Tonekabon, Chaloos, Noshahr, Noor, Mahmoodabad, Savadkooh, Babolsar, Jooybar, Neka, Behshahr, Galoogah, Fereidoonkenar and Abbas Abad

The province's five largest counties are Sari, Behshahr, Babol, Amol and Qaemshahr. Founded as province in 1937, Mazandaran was declared the second modern province after neighboring Gilan.
The diverse nature of the province features plains, prairies, forests and jungles stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Elburz sierra, including Mount Damavand, the highest peak and volcano in the Middle East and Western Asia, which at the narrowest point (Nowshahr County) narrows to 5 miles.
Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology and civil engineering.
Human habitation in the area dates back at least 75,000 years. Recent excavations in Goher Tippe provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years, and the area is considered one of the most important historical sites of Iran. It has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region.
Indigenous peoples of the region include the ethnic Mazanderanis speaking an Iranian language which most resembles Gilaki and Sangiseri
Mazandaran province central coordination locates in 36.5656°N 53.0588°E.
The population of the province has been steadily growing during the last 50 years. The following table shows the approximate province population, excluding the Golestan province, which has separated as an independent province in 1998.
Sari is considered sister city of Koomel, Belarus.
The population is of Caucasian Iranian stock with a minority of non-native neighboring Turkic tribes (esp. the Turkomen), a sizable Armenian minority and Russian immigrants, mainly from former Soviet republics of Georgia (country), Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan.
The Mazandaran Sea provides a beautiful coastline in north of Sari; northeast of the city is Neka. Qa'emshahr (Formerly known as Shahi) is to its southwest, Juybar is to its northwest, and Kiyasar, Damghan, and Semnan are in the south part of Sari.
Sari is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea. Its population is estimated to be 261,293, as of 2006. It has a land area of 5,089 square kilometers. Sari is one of the entertainment and sports centers of Iran.

Geography and Climate

Mazandaran province is geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains, and the mountainous areas. The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea like a huge barrier.
There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the Alborz regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast, dividing the province into many isolated valleys. The province enjoys a moderate, subtropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter. Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter, it rarely falls around sea lines.
There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the Alborz regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast, dividing the province into many isolated valleys. The province enjoys a moderate, subtropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter. Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter, it rarely falls around sea

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